Durham City Council Sued Over Alleged Violation of Open-Meetings Statute

Durham HRC, Israel, Durham City Council

Using public records obtained by a Voice4Israel investigation, a Durham resident filed a lawsuit yesterday alleging that the Durham City Council used email communications in violation of the open-meetings statute related to the writing and passing of the April 16 anti-Israel City Council statementMayor Steve Schewel and Mayor Pro Tempore Jillian Johnson initially called the April statement the “Israel resolution.” The lawsuit asks, “For judgement declaring…the  simultaneous email communication among a majority of council members were official meetings of the Durham City Council in violation of the Open Meetings Law and clearing that any action taken, considered, discussed or deliberations as a result is null and void.” For details, read these articles:

Durham Council Members Sued Over Alleged Violations of Open-Government Law

Indy Week article

Durham leaders face a second lawsuit about policing statement that mentioned Israel

Herald Sun article

Heartbroken about Durham City Council – Thankful for HRC Draft Report

Durham HRC, Israel, Durham City Council

In November, the Durham Human Relations Commission (HRC) presented a draft proposal recommending that the Durham City Council removes the singling out of Israel from their divisive and discriminatory April 16 statement. 

Judith Siegel, a Durham resident, sent the Durham HRC the strong letter printed below. 

Read more letters to the Durham HRC here.

Letter to the Durham Human Relations Commission 

November 29, 2018

Dear Mr. Ricardo and Ms. Standaert,

I reside in Durham and have lived in this area for 52 years. I was heartbroken to think that my own city could issue such a hurtful and untruthful statement about “military” policing by Israel. I also watched the proceedings leading up to its being passed and could not believe the venom expressed that day. Could this be my city? It left me in tears.

So it was a relief to read your knowledgeable and thoughtful draft report. Thank you, thank you, for helping to right a wrong. I want to express my fervent hope that it will be passed by the full Commission.

Sincerely,

Judith Siegel

Beth El Synagogue Writes Durham Human Relations Commission

Beth El Synagogue, Durham Human Relations Commission, Israel, Durham City Council

In November, the Durham Human Relations Commission (HRC) presented a draft proposal recommending that the Durham City Council removes the singling out of Israel from their divisive and discriminatory April 16 statement. 

Beth El Synagogue sent the letter below to the Durham HRC. 

Read more letters to the Durham HRC here.

Letter to the Durham Human Relations Commission 

November, 2018

Dear Durham Human Relations Commission,

I am writing on behalf of Beth El congregation to thank you for your committee’s careful and thoughtful approach to considering the concerns of members of the Durham Jewish community about the City Council’s statement on international police exchanges. We hope you will adopt the report as drafted at your upcoming December meeting.

In particular, we appreciate the time you took to reach out to many stakeholders and to attend local community forums to learn as much as possible from the community about various perspectives. As our Board of Trustees noted in a June 2018 letter to the City Council, one of our major concerns was that

We are not aware of any effort to reach out to the Jewish community prior to the vote on the resolution, and this contributed to a feeling that our community was not valued. Behind this feeling are concerns about recent anti-Semitic incidents in Durham and elsewhere that suggest that anti-Semitism is a growing and present threat for our community and beyond. We hope that in the future, if similar issues arise that affect any minority community, City Council members will reach out to leaders of the affected communities to seek their input and involve them in the discussion.

The commission report highlights ways the process could have been better, and we concur with many of the observations in the report.

Finally, we appreciate your commitment to educating the community and speaking out against antisemitism. Beth El congregation looks forward to opportunities to partner with you on this effort and are eager to participate in other efforts to address racism, and engage in interfaith, interracial dialogue here in Durham.

Again, thank you for taking the time to thoroughly consider these issues and many perspectives and suggesting a constructive path forward.

Sincerely,

Debbie Goldstein, Beth El President and the Beth El Board of Trustees

Respected Professor and Jewish Federation Leader Supports HRC Draft Report

Lewis Margolis, Israel, HRC, Durham City Council, Letters to Durham HRC, Israel Resolution

In November, the Durham Human Relations Commission (HRC) presented a draft proposal recommending that the Durham City Council removes the singling out of Israel from their divisive and discriminatory April 16 statement. 

Dr. Lewis Margolis wrote the letter below to the Durham HRC. Lewis Margolis, MD, MPH, is a Jewish Federation leader and retired associate professor of maternal and child health at the UNC Gillings School of Global Public Health. He has received the Association of Maternal and Child Health Programs’ (AMCHP) Vince Hutchins Leadership Award.

Read more letters to the Durham HRC here.

Letter to the Durham Human Relations Commission 

November 25, 2018

Dear Ms. Standaert and Mr. Correa:

I am deeply troubled by the mis-guided April 16 resolution of the Durham City Council and expect, hope, that the Human Relations Commission will act according to its purpose and advise that the reference to Israel be deleted. I expect and hope that the Human Relations Commission will help the Durham City Council to understand that the mis-informed singling out of Israel amounts to an anti-Semitic intent and has no justified place in the resolution of April 16. Many members of the Jewish community, leaders and non-leaders, feel marginalized by this action of the Durham City Council. The first step in the re-emergence of anti-Semitism is when it moves from the fringes to the mainstream of politics, such as a Council resolution. Sadly and alarmingly, the members of the City Council have acted as if this resolution poses no political harm to them, the second ominous step in the emergence of anti-Semitism.

As long-time resident of the Durham-Chapel Hill community, I appreciate the value that open-minded tolerance has added to our community and fear the harm that results when that value is diminished by careless political thinking. Please keep me informed of your actions. I trust that the Human Rights Council will act appropriately, consistent with its mission.

Lewis Margolis
Chapel Hill, NC

World Renowned Historian Supports HRC Draft Report

Gerhard L. Weinberg, Israel, Durham City Council, HRC, Durham Human Relations Commission

In November, the Durham Human Relations Commission (HRC) presented a draft proposal recommending that the Durham City Council removes the singling out of Israel from their divisive and discriminatory April 16 statement. 

Gerhard L. Weinberg wrote the letter below to the Durham HRC. Dr. Weinberg is a world renowned historian, North Carolina resident, and Professor Emeritus of History at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Weinberg is author of many highly acclaimed books including A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II and Hitler’s Foreign Policy 1933-1939: The Road to World War II.

Read more letters to the Durham HRC here.

Letter to the Durham Human Relations Commission 

November 17, 2018

Dear Ms. Standaert,

While my wife and I live in Efland, we belong to Judea Reform Congregation in Durham.  As a retired professor of history who taught the first course on the Holocaust ever offered at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill I was astonished and disappointed to hear about the Durham City Council’s anti-Israel action.  Now I have been pleased to learn of the excellent report on this matter prepared for the city’s HRC which you chair.  I do hope that the HRC will approve the report as its official position on this issue.

Respectfully yours,

Gerhard L. Weinberg

 

Progressive Jewish Community Leader Supports HRC Draft Proposal

Pilar Rocha-Goldberg, Israel, HRC, Durham City Council

In November, the Durham Human Relations Commission (HRC) presented a draft proposal recommending that the Durham City Council removes the singling out of Israel from their divisive and discriminatory April 16 statement. 

Durham resident and community leader Pilar Rocha-Goldberg wrote the letter below to the HRC in support of their well researched draft report. Rocha-Goldberg is President and CEO of the El Centro Hispano, an organization that advocates “for equity and inclusion for Hispanics/Latinos in the Triangle Area of North Carolina.”

Read more letters to the Durham HRC here

Letter to the Durham Human Relations Commission 

November 24, 2018

Dear Diane and Ricardo,

I live and work in Durham. I would like to start by thanking you for the draft recommendations to Mayor Schewel and the Durham City Council regarding the April 16 statement, which included language specifically against Israel and no other foreign country.

I see what transpired at the City Council as a very serious issue of anti-Semitism arising from an action of a Government – I don’t say this lightly, I say this as a progressive community organizer who works hard for equality and human rights.

A small group of anti-Israel activists lobbied the Durham City Council with the message, based on lies and innuendo, that Israel trains police to “terrorize Black and Brown communities here in the US.” It is almost incomprehensible to imagine that these anti-Israel activists succeeded in getting the Durham City Council to single out Israel without a shred of evidence to support such hateful claims.

In addition, I have been troubled by the lack of response by the Mayor Pro Tempore to an anti-Semitic email she received about me when I was applying for the open City Council seat in January (see pasted below my letter). I would have hoped that Jillian Johnson would have responded to her anti-Israel supporters by clearly stating that opposing my candidacy because I attend a certain synagogue is simply wrong and anti-Semitic. She did not.

Please note that the email to Jillian Johnson was written by Elyse Crystall. Crystall is one of the anti-Israel activists who spoke at the November HRC meeting. CC on the email were other leading architects of the virulently anti-Israel petition and campaign – Tom Stern, Sandra Korn, Beth Bruch Noah Rubin-Blose, and Gabriel Baldasare. Some of these anti-Israel activists had the audacity to lecture the HRC at the November meeting on the definition of anti-Semitism. Please don’t take advice on anti-Semitism from people who opposed my candidacy for City Council because of what synagogue I pray in. These folks should be taking sensitivity classes, not lecturing on the subject.

It is clear they have an “agenda” that is not opposed to employing anti-Semitism to see it succeed.

I believe that the Council, with their April 16 “Israel Resolution,” has contributed to an attack on Israel – the Jewish homeland. To many of us, this feels like an attack on the Jewish community. There was no value to mentioning Israel at all in the statement – doing so only caused pain and divisiveness and made the mainstream Jewish community feel attacked and unwelcome in Durham.

Criticizing Israel’s government is totally acceptable. We Jews do that all the time. Specifically targeting and singling out Israel at the City Council level, without targeting any other country, is divisive, discriminatory, and has created an environment that is welcoming and nurturing of anti-Semitism. The April 16 City Council statement – and the fast-tracking, clandestine process that enabled it – is arrogant and undemocratic. It has enabled anti-Semitism to flourish in Durham.

See this important column in the Washington Post by Rabbi Jill Jacobs, “How to tell when criticism of Israel is actually anti-Semitism.” Jacobs, a progressive Jew like me, stated that the Durham City Council’s statement against Israel amounts to an example of left wing anti-Semitism. I agree.

Lastly, I am very thankful for your draft HRC report. In addition to recommending that the City Council remove the singling out of Israel from their April 16 statement, I deeply appreciate the HRC’s careful detailing of the City Council’s lack of transparency and fairness in this entire process.

With all respect,

Pilar Rocha-Goldberg

Durham, NC

Israel, Israel Resolution, Durham HRC
Israel, Israel Resolution, Durham HRC

Holocaust Survivor Writes the Durham HRC

Israel, Durham City Council, HRC
Sven Sonnenberg is an 87 year old North Carolina resident and a Holocaust survivor. His childhood was spent in Nazi-occupied Poland during WWII. As a survivor, Mr. Sonnenberg witnessed horrors beyond most people’s imaginations. Mr. Sonnenberg is author of A Two Step Journey to Hell about surviving the Holocaust. Sven just wrote to Durham’s Human Relations Commission (HRC):

"I fully support your recommendation that the Council removes the singling out of Israel from the April 16 statement. Please vote on and pass your draft proposal so that the Durham City Council finally revisits their divisive, discriminatory statement."

Sven Sonnenberg

November 17, 2018

HRC Chair Diane Standaert and HRC Commissioners,

I am 87 years old, a North Carolina resident, and a Holocaust survivor. I am writing the Durham Human Relations Commission (HRC) concerning the April 16 Durham City Council statement that has caused so much unnecessary pain, tension, and divisiveness. I fully support the efforts of the Durham-Chapel Hill Jewish Federation, Voice4Israel, and the thousands of local Jews they represent. I hope the HRC will carry through with your excellent draft proposal by voting to approve this proposal at your December meeting. A lot of repair work is needed by the Durham City Council – passing your draft proposal will certainly make it clear to the Council that they can’t just keep dismissing the local Jewish minority.

My childhood was spent in Nazi-occupied Poland during WWII. As a Holocaust survivor, I witnessed horrors beyond most people’s imaginations. I witnessed deaths and starvation in ghettos, deportations to death camps and pogroms. A pogrom is an unknown term for most Americans. It starts with a spark, a false accusation against Jews. Typically, in Poland or Russia, it is a missing child during Easter week followed by false, quickly spreading rumors that the child was killed in a ritual murder by Jews for getting blood for making matzos (this is called a “blood libel” against Jews). It invariably and regularly resulted in a mob moving into the Jewish quarter and killing, raping, and looting. That “killed child” was always found later being alive and safe.

Anti-Semitism is a mental decease often dormant. To awaken it all you need is a spark, hearsay, lies, falsehoods. It should come as no surprise to anyone that in response to the Durham City Council’s targeting of Israel, a resident felt very comfortable standing up at City Hall and thanking the Council by saying that Jews pray in “the synagogue of Satan.” It should come as no surprise that directly following the Council’s targeting of Israel, anti-Semitic posters and fliers have appeared numerous times in Durham and surrounding areas. The Durham City Council targeted only Israel – that sends a message that targeting Jews is okay. I have seen this all before.

Recently, Jews were slaughtered at a synagogue in Pittsburgh. Mayor Schewel had the audacity to only blame the far right for such hate. Mayor Schewel led the City Council in an unprecedented targeting of Israel – that also contributes to such hate and intolerance.

I commend and thank the HRC for your study of this issue and carefully written draft report. I fully support your recommendation that the Council removes the singling out of Israel from the April 16 statement. Please vote on and pass your draft proposal so that the Durham City Council finally revisits their divisive, discriminatory statement.

Sincerely,

Sven Sonnenberg 


Read more letters to the Durham Human Relations Commission here

Duke Student Asks Durham HRC to Approve Well Researched Draft Proposal

HRC, Israel

Max Cherman, Duke University Class of 2020, writes to the Durham Human Relations Commission (HRC) asking them to approve their draft proposal which finds the Durham City Council at fault for their April 16, 2018 foreign policy statement against Israel. Read more letters sent to the HRC here.

"I am very grateful for your efforts...Thank you again for the HRC’s sensible leadership on this issue."

Max Cherman

November 19, 2018

Dear Ms. Standaert and Mr. Correa,

My name is Max Cherman and I am a student at Duke. I would personally like to thank you, as leaders of the Durham Human Relations Committee, for the HRC’s thoughtful and thorough draft report, findings, and recommendations on the City Council’s statement regarding international police exchanges. This issue has caused unnecessary tension and division in the community, and I believe your proposal would help us bring this divisive issue to a productive end. It would address the need for more responsible, de-militarized, and de-racialized policing while avoiding divisive statements unnecessarily singling out Israel in the discussion of the city’s opposition to international military-style police exchanges.

It is imperative that we move on from this issue. Too much time has been spent focusing on theories and presumptions of what training Chief Lopez did or did not receive in Israel, especially considering that whatever training Chief Lopez did receive has not led to any policy changes within the DPD. At this point, given the tension this issue has caused in our community, I think it’s an understatement to say that members of the DPD are unlikely to engage is further exchanges in Israel. Given the fact that the DPD has historically had visitors/training from representatives of other countries as well, the most proactive handling of this situation would be to address potential police exchanges/training with representatives from any country as a blanket policy clearly applied to all countries equally. The draft revisions so eloquently do this, and I am very grateful for your efforts in making these changes.

Thank you again for the HRC’s sensible leadership on this issue.

Sincerely,
Max Cherman

Duke University Class of 2020

Duke Mural Commemorating Pittsburgh Victims Defaced with Swastika

A mural painted by Duke students and faculty commemorating the victims of the shooting in Pittsburgh was defaced yesterday with a swastika. 

Duke University student Max Cherman tells Voice4Israel, “This is extremely disturbing. Duke students are writing President Price in response. There is a large group of Jewish students that are very concerned and looking to work with the administration to increase the security presence at Freeman and Chabad. I think it’s crucial to mention that anti-Semitism feeds off itself, whether we consider it to be ‘far left’ or ‘far right.’ Every anti-Semitic action has a domino effect, and no specific political persuasion changes that.”

The Duke Chronicle reports, “Duke will maintain extra security at the Freeman Center for Jewish Life and other areas of campus, and he said that a security camera would be installed at the East Campus bridge.”

Duke President Vincent Price wrote, 

“Dear Colleagues,

I write you this morning with a deep sense of frustration and sorrow: last night, a tribute on the East Campus Bridge to the victims of the Tree of Life Synagogue massacre was defaced by a large, red swastika. That such a craven and cowardly act of vandalism – a desecration of a memorial to individuals who were killed because they were Jewish and practicing their faith – should happen anywhere is extremely distressing. That it should occur in such a visible, public location at Duke should be a matter of grave concern to us all.

To our Jewish students, faculty, staff and neighbors – and indeed every member of our university community – I pledge that Duke will do whatever we can to protect your safety. As an immediate response, we will continue to provide additional security at the Freeman Center for Jewish Life and other locations on campus. In addition, we will be installing security cameras in the vicinity of the East Campus Bridge, which has unfortunately become a focus of attention for those who seek to promote hatred and intimidation.

This poison of hate is not confined to Duke. It is part of a national, even global, trend that has seen hate crimes in general, and anti-Semitism in particular, increase dramatically in the past year. And since this incident follows others on campus and in Durham, we have an urgent obligation to confront anti-Semitism and other forms of hate on campus and in Durham. For that reason, I will be convening a meeting of leaders from Duke, the local Jewish community and public officials to review this matter and advise us on the actions we can take to confront the scourge of anti-Semitism through education and activism.

Duke alone cannot solve this problem, of course. But I commit that Duke will lead, and that we will not waver in our support for those of many faiths, backgrounds, races, sexual orientations and creeds, especially in these deeply trying and troubling times.

Vincent E. Price
President”

Supporting the HRC Report in Durham

Voice4Israel and the Jewish Federation of Durham-Chapel Hill jointly sent this letter today, on behalf of the mainstream Jewish community, to the Durham Human Relations Commission. 

The Case for Supporting the Report of the HRC Subcommittee on the April 16 Council Statement

Dear Members of the Human Relations Commission,

As we have noted with appreciation, the HRC draft report was written with great care and clearly based on research, evidence, and listening to many people on all sides of this issue. Its preparation is admirable. We wish the Durham City Council had applied such great care and sensitivity in their April 16 statement. If the Council had, we would have never needed to bring this issue to the HRC. The HRC subcommittee is a wonderful role model for how the City Council should strive to seek out and listen to all voices.

It bears emphasis that we stated our primary concern from the beginning: “The City Council reached a hasty decision that made the mainstream Jewish Community feel marginalized and unjustly singled out.” We believe they profoundly misunderstand what the modern State of Israel means to Judaism as much of the American Jewish community understands it and we invite City Council members to increase their outreach to Jewish institutions and local community members to foster meaningful relationships and restore trust between the Jewish community and the city of Durham.

To be “marginalized” means having the community despise what we love, based on lies. We embrace justified criticism of Israel, but big lies are intolerable. There is nothing that has happened in Durham or any other city that can be traced to exchange programs. The advocates of leaving the name of Israel in the document chose to exploit the very legitimate effort of the Council to write a policy regarding policing. They asked the Council to add their campaign against Israel to the drafting. Their plan had been formulated and implemented in a national anti-Israel group. Their assertion that the subcommittee draft that includes removal of the name, Israel, from the Statement supports an unjustified and hurtful claim.

On the other hand, to leave the name in does nothing whatsoever to the policy to improve policing.

The assertion we heard Tuesday night that they are insulted by our request to remove the Council’s insult to us is most unusual. For us to object to an insult and ask that it be removed is quite different and cannot be insulting. Put more directly, there is no inherent right for anyone, especially a Government to insult, especially if it adds nothing of value and based on a big lie.

We will try to outline some key issues that arose in the discussion Tuesday night.

Those of you who were at the previous meeting, when the petitioners also discussed this issue in great detail will remember a set of influential speakers from the same group who gave the same talks. While there were new individuals who spoke Tuesday night, their ethnic group leaders had already given virtually the same talks.

We heard from them that Israel must receive a public rebuke based on their memories from another land. They and others have been saying so consistently for decades. Using gross lies (see attachment 1) to link the troubles in the Middle East to those here in the US was the basis of the national organizations that put together the plan executed first in Durham. There is no truth to their accusations of a causal relationship between police training in Israel and oppression of minorities in the US.

As we said in our first presentation: “The petition put forth from the Jewish Voice for Peace and other Israel-demonizing groups, which initiated the process in Durham is part of this hurtful process and is a painful echo of the ancient “blood libel” *. The petition includes the following: “The Israeli Defense Forces and the Israel Police have a long history of violence and harm against Palestinian people and Jews of Color.” This accusation is a classic case of using the Big Lie Technique: tell a big lie, repeat it often, until people start believing it is true. It added another big lie: “These tactics further militarize U.S. police forces that train in Israel, and this training helps the police terrorize Black and Brown communities here in the US.” There is no causal relationship between police training in Israel and oppression of minorities in the US. Charles H. Ramsey, Commissioner (retired) of the Philadelphia Police and past co-chair of President Obama’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing, explained “allegations that exchange programs with Israel are racist… nothing could be further from the truth… simply not true.”

We realize the deeply felt pain of those who suggest that Israel is evil, but that is irrelevant to the affairs of the City of Durham because not even the most avid Council supporter of including the name of Israel on the Statement could find any causal relationship claimed by them. It is valid to criticize Israel when the criticism is based on verifiable facts. However, when it is based on lies, it is illegitimate and harmful. It is not the job of the City Council to issue statements about foreign government actions that have no relation to our city, particularly when unfounded. We too object to adversity caused in Israel/Palestine by both sides, but we did not petition the Council to delegitimize the Palestinians.

According to its website, the Human Relations Commission provides open channels of useful communications among the various racial, religious, ethnic and economic groups in Durham and between those groups and the City Council so that misunderstandings and wide differences leading to conflict may be ameliorated. We ask that the Human Relations Commission formally conclude that this governmental decree was discriminatory and to call upon the City Council to take necessary corrective action.

As the sub-committee draft so carefully explains, there is no need to mention Israel in the April 16 statement. The purpose and vision of the statement initially named “the Israel Resolution” by Mayor Schewel, was to communicate the council’s vision for improving community relations between police and residents. As Councilperson Mark-Anthony Middleton has repeatedly and publicly said, Israel has nothing to do with this. The reason one has to believe that the Council agreed to include Israel in the Statement arose from the inflammatory petition Council members had received, an information sheet filled with outrageous lies and is attached above.

The Statement needs to be changed because it supports and legitimizes a deliberately concocted Petition which presents falsehoods as facts and attributes causal relationship when there is none. It criticizes “militaristic” training and then blames Israel for a non-existent pattern. These inclusions make the statement deeply offensive to rabbis, secular Jewish leaders, hundreds of others, and any fair-minded person, primarily because none of the allegations is true.

Even the claim, which has been repeated to the Commission twice, that no other country shares in police exchanges with other countries is false as seen here where England, Hungary, Canada, Brazil, Austria and Egypt are named; and reported here.

The question of the exact definition of the term “anti-Semitism is not relevant because all parties have agreed that the Council did not intend to write an anti-Semitic Document. We contend that unwarranted Anti-Israel Government sponsored action can and has led to Anti-Semitism by others. This history appears to be an unintended consequence. It is the responsibility of the Council to correct that.

In the words of Bishop Godbee: “When any population of our city is radically adversely affected by the words of its leaders, it is incumbent on the leaders to retract and apologize and not double down on their actions. For the leaders of our city to vilify a proposed program and demonize the people supporting it, based on empirical evidence, is an egregious use of power. To make such a claim is unacceptable for any reasonable human being. The leadership should be measured by its ability to serve all in the city. He ended by saying:” we have a wonderful opportunity here, which is to heal the great hurts in the city.

The request to reopen the Sub-Committee meetings to hear more from those individuals who spoke Tuesday night is an exemplification of the same pattern of provocation these individuals and groups have been using. They will repeat the same claims, lies, and distorted facts you have heard. They claim they have had bad experiences both here and there. That was the same messaging by their friends, heard at the last meeting. If you are going to resume the Sub-Committee hearings, we repeat a request we have made several times to both the Council and the Commission: please also take testimony from Police Chiefs Davis and Ramsey (and many others who participated in such exchanges) in order to hear a clear first-person account of what actually happens in the police exchanges in Israel.

Finally, we have included for convenience (second attachment) our last prepared document. Please read carefully.

Sincerely and gratefully,

On Behalf of the vast majority of Jewish Members in the area affected by the Statement

Robert Gutman, Co-Chair of the Voice for Israel

Jill Madsen, CEO of the Durham Chapel Jewish Federation

Michael Ross, Chair of the Voice for Israel

Larry Rocamora, President of the Durham Chapel Jewish Federation

 

*The phrase “blood libel” refers to the ancient lie that Christian children were killed to use their blood in the making of Matzah.